International Journal of Cancer Management

Published by: Kowsar

Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer: A Review of Imaging Modalities

Maryam Jafari 1 , * , Masoumeh Gity 2 , 3 , Asiie Olfatbakhsh 1 , Kiara Rezaei-Kalantari 4 and Esmat Alsadat Hashemi 1
Authors Information
1 Breast Diseases Department, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
4 Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of Cancer Management: July 2018, 11 (7); e65444
  • Published Online: June 25, 2018
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: December 30, 2017
  • Revised: February 24, 2018
  • Accepted: April 17, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijcm.65444

How to Cite: Jafari M, Gity M, Olfatbakhsh A, Rezaei-Kalantari K, Hashemi E A. Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer: A Review of Imaging Modalities, Int J Cancer Manag. 2018 ; 11(7):e65444. doi: 10.5812/ijcm.65444.

Copyright © 2018, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Imaging-Guided Interventions
5. Conclusions
  • 1. Movahedi M, Haghighat S, Khayamzadeh M, Moradi A, Ghanbari-Motlagh A, Mirzaei H, et al. Survival rate of breast cancer based on geographical variation in iran, a national study. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2012;14(12):798-804. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.3631. [PubMed: 23483369]. [PubMed Central: PMC3587870].
  • 2. Gemignani ML, Petrek JA. Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment. Breast J. 2000;6(1):68-73. [PubMed: 11348338].
  • 3. Hogge JP, De Paredes ES, Magnant CM, Lage J. Imaging and Management of Breast Masses During Pregnancy and Lactation. Breast J. 1999;5(4):272-83. [PubMed: 11348301].
  • 4. Ahn BY, Kim HH, Moon WK, Pisano ED, Kim HS, Cha ES, et al. Pregnancy- and lactation-associated breast cancer: mammographic and sonographic findings. J Ultrasound Med. 2003;22(5):491-7. quiz 498-9. [PubMed: 12751860].
  • 5. Wallack MK, Wolf JJ, Bedwinek J, Denes AE, Glasgow G, Kumar B, et al. Gestational carcinoma of the female breast. Curr Probl Cancer. 1983;7(9):1-58. [PubMed: 6303698].
  • 6. Crosby CH, Barclay TH. Carcinoma of the breast: surgical management of patients with special conditions. Cancer. 1971;28(6):1628-36. [PubMed: 5127810].
  • 7. Barnes DM, Newman LA. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a literature review. Surg Clin North Am. 2007;87(2):417-30. x. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2007.01.008. [PubMed: 17498535].
  • 8. Amant F, Deckers S, Van Calsteren K, Loibl S, Halaska M, Brepoels L, et al. Breast cancer in pregnancy: recommendations of an international consensus meeting. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46(18):3158-68. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2010.09.010. [PubMed: 20932740].
  • 9. Robbins J, Jeffries D, Roubidoux M, Helvie M. Accuracy of diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasound during pregnancy and lactation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;196(3):716-22. doi: 10.2214/AJR.09.3662. [PubMed: 21343518].
  • 10. Liberman L, Giess CS, Dershaw DD, Deutch BM, Petrek JA. Imaging of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Radiology. 1994;191(1):245-8. doi: 10.1148/radiology.191.1.8134581. [PubMed: 8134581].
  • 11. Yang WT, Dryden MJ, Gwyn K, Whitman GJ, Theriault R. Imaging of breast cancer diagnosed and treated with chemotherapy during pregnancy. Radiology. 2006;239(1):52-60. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2391050083. [PubMed: 16484353].
  • 12. Saber A, Dardik H, Ibrahim IM, Wolodiger F. The milk rejection sign: a natural tumor marker. Am Surg. 1996;62(12):998-9. [PubMed: 8955234].
  • 13. Goldsmith HS. Milk-rejection sign of breast cancer. Am J Surg. 1974;127(3):280-1. [PubMed: 4359859].
  • 14. Middleton LP, Amin M, Gwyn K, Theriault R, Sahin A. Breast carcinoma in pregnant women: assessment of clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features. Cancer. 2003;98(5):1055-60. doi: 10.1002/cncr.11614. [PubMed: 12942575].
  • 15. Gwyn K, Theriault R. Breast cancer during pregnancy. Oncology. 2001;15(1):39-45.
  • 16. Navrozoglou I, Vrekoussis T, Kontostolis E, Dousias V, Zervoudis S, Stathopoulos EN, et al. Breast cancer during pregnancy: a mini-review. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008;34(8):837-43. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2008.01.029. [PubMed: 18343083].
  • 17. Treves N, Holleb AI. A report of 549 cases of breast cancer in women 35 years of age or younger. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1958;107(3):271-83. [PubMed: 13580771].
  • 18. Woo JC, Yu T, Hurd TC. Breast cancer in pregnancy: a literature review. Arch Surg. 2003;138(1):91-8. discussion 99. [PubMed: 12511159].
  • 19. Espinosa LA, Daniel BL, Vidarsson L, Zakhour M, Ikeda DM, Herfkens RJ. The lactating breast: contrast-enhanced MR imaging of normal tissue and cancer. Radiology. 2005;237(2):429-36. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2372040837. [PubMed: 16244250].
  • 20. Sechopoulos I, Suryanarayanan S, Vedantham S, D'Orsi CJ, Karellas A. Radiation dose to organs and tissues from mammography: Monte Carlo and phantom study. Radiology. 2008;246(2):434-43. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2462070256. [PubMed: 18056857]. [PubMed Central: PMC2430752].
  • 21. American College of Radiology. ACR practice guideline for imaging pregnant or potentially pregnant adolescents and women with ionizing radiation. 2015.
  • 22. Beadle BM, Woodward WA, Middleton LP, Tereffe W, Strom EA, Litton JK, et al. The impact of pregnancy on breast cancer outcomes in womenCancer. 2009;115(6):1174-84. doi: 10.1002/cncr.24165. [PubMed: 19204903]. [PubMed Central: PMC3063387].
  • 23. Vashi R, Hooley R, Butler R, Geisel J, Philpotts L. Breast imaging of the pregnant and lactating patient: imaging modalities and pregnancy-associated breast cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;200(2):321-8. doi: 10.2214/AJR.12.9814. [PubMed: 23345353].
  • 24. Sabate JM, Clotet M, Torrubia S, Gomez A, Guerrero R, de las Heras P, et al. Radiologic evaluation of breast disorders related to pregnancy and lactation. Radiographics. 2007;27 Suppl 1:S101-24. doi: 10.1148/rg.27si075505. [PubMed: 18180221].
  • 25. Webb JA, Thomsen HS, Morcos SK, Members of Contrast Media Safety Committee of European Society of Urogenital R. The use of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation. Eur Radiol. 2005;15(6):1234-40. doi: 10.1007/s00330-004-2583-y. [PubMed: 15609057].
  • 26. American College of Radiology. ACR manual on contrast media. 20‏12. Available from:
  • 27. Patenaude Y, Pugash D, Lim K, Morin L, Diagnostic Imaging C, Lim K, et al. The use of magnetic resonance imaging in the obstetric patient. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2014;36(4):349-63. [PubMed: 24798674].
  • 28. Talele AC, Slanetz PJ, Edmister WB, Yeh ED, Kopans DB. The lactating breast: MRI findings and literature review. Breast J. 2003;9(3):237-40. [PubMed: 12752635].
  • 29. Nettleton J, Long J, Kuban D, Wu R, Shaefffer J, El-Mahdi A. Breast cancer during pregnancy: quantifying the risk of treatment delay. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;87(3):414-8. [PubMed: 8598965].
  • 30. Samphao S, Wheeler AJ, Rafferty E, Michaelson JS, Specht MC, Gadd MA, et al. Diagnosis of breast cancer in women age 40 and younger: delays in diagnosis result from underuse of genetic testing and breast imaging. Am J Surg. 2009;198(4):538-43. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2009.06.010. [PubMed: 19800464].
  • 31. Eedarapalli P, Jain S. Breast cancer in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;26(1):1-4. doi: 10.1080/01443610500363808. [PubMed: 16390699].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments