International Journal of Cancer Management

Published by: Kowsar

Causes of Delay in Seeking Treatment in Iranian Patients with Breast Cancer Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM)

Narges Khanjani 1 , Hadis Rastad 2 , Maryam Saber 3 , Behjat Kalantari Khandani 4 and Leila Tavakkoli 5 , *
Authors Information
1 Environmental Health Engineering Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Health Education, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
4 Department of Internal Medicine, The Medical School, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
5 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of Cancer Management: June 2018, 11 (6); e61383
  • Published Online: June 3, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: September 5, 2017
  • Revised: March 2, 2018
  • Accepted: May 1, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijcm.61383

To Cite: Khanjani N, Rastad H, Saber M, Kalantari Khandani B, Tavakkoli L. Causes of Delay in Seeking Treatment in Iranian Patients with Breast Cancer Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), Int J Cancer Manag. 2018 ; 11(6):e61383. doi: 10.5812/ijcm.61383.

Abstract
Copyright © 2018, Cancer Research Center (CRC), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
Acknowledgements
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Coughlin SS, Ekwueme DU. Breast cancer as a global health concern. Cancer Epidemiol. 2009;33(5):315-8. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2009.10.003. [PubMed: 19896917].
  • 2. Khanjani N, Hoving JL, Forbes AB, Sim MR. Systematic review and meta-analysis of cyclodiene insecticides and breast cancer. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2007;25(1):23-52. doi: 10.1080/10590500701201711. [PubMed: 17365341].
  • 3. Khanjani N, English DR, Sim MR. An ecological study of organochlorine pesticides and breast cancer in rural Victoria, Australia. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006;50(3):452-61. doi: 10.1007/s00244-004-7217-5. [PubMed: 16489419].
  • 4. Khanjani N, Jafarnejad AB, Tavakkoli L. Arsenic and breast cancer: a systematic review of epidemiologic studies. Rev Environ Health. 2017;32(3):267-77. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2016-0068. [PubMed: 28284039].
  • 5. International-Agency-for-Research-on-Cancer . GLOBAL 2012: Estimated Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide in 2012: World-Health-Organization. 2012. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_population.aspx.
  • 6. World-Health-Organization . Towards a strategy for cancer control in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. 2009.
  • 7. World-Health-Organization . Cancer Country Profile (Iran). 2014. Available from: http://www.who.int/cancer/country-profiles/irn_en.pdf?ua=1.
  • 8. Ziaei JE, Sanaat Z, Asvadi I, Dastgiri S, Pourzand A, Vaez J. Survival analysis of breast cancer patients in northwest Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(1):39-42. doi: 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.39. [PubMed: 23534759].
  • 9. Rafati M, Ghotbi M, Ahmad Nia H. Principle of disease prevention and surveillance. Surveillance Systems of Non-Communicable Diseases; 2008.
  • 10. Richards MA, Westcombe AM, Love SB, Littlejohns P, Ramirez AJ. Influence of delay on survival in patients with breast cancer: a systematic review. Lancet. 1999;353(9159):1119-26. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)02143-1. [PubMed: 10209974].
  • 11. Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Harirchi I, Harirchi AM, Sajadian A, Khaleghi F, et al. Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods. Asia Pac Fam Med. 2008;7(1):6. doi: 10.1186/1447-056X-7-6. [PubMed: 19099595]. [PubMed Central: PMC2628874].
  • 12. Kalantari Khandani B, Tavakkoli L, Khanjani N. Metastasis and its Related Factors in Female Breast Cancer Patients in Kerman, Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017;18(6):1567-71. doi: 10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.6.1567. [PubMed: 28669169].
  • 13. Burgess C, Hunter MS, Ramirez AJ. A qualitative study of delay among women reporting symptoms of breast cancer. Br J Gen Pract. 2001;51(473):967-71. [PubMed: 11766868]. [PubMed Central: PMC1314188].
  • 14. Davoodi S. Public health challenges in Iran. Ebtekar Danesh; 2008.
  • 15. Montazeri A, Ebrahimi M, Mehrdad N, Ansari M, Sajadian A. Delayed presentation in breast cancer: a study in Iranian women. BMC Womens Health. 2003;3(1):4. doi: 10.1186/1472-6874-3-4. [PubMed: 12846932]. [PubMed Central: PMC166160].
  • 16. Ghaem Maghami F, et al TP6P[. [Delay in referring and related factors in patients with advanced breast cancer - Emam Hospital (2000)]. Tehran Univ Med J. 2002;60(2):157-64. Persian.
  • 17. Fouladi NF. Daneshian, The affecting factors of the delays before diagnosis, diagnosis and treatment of the patients with breast cancer using the Anderson model. Ardabil University of Medical Sciences; 2014. Persian.
  • 18. Qorban Sabbagh M, Khanjani N, Fadakar MM, Iranpour A. [Empowerment of women visiting the health centers of Kerman by teaching Self Breast Examination in the presence of Behvarz]. Iran Q J Breast Dis. 2014;7(1):41-51. Persian.
  • 19. Rezabeigi-davarani E, Khanjani N, Falahi M, Daneshi S, Iranpour A. Breast self-examination and its effective factors based on the theory of planned behavior among women in Kerman, Iran. J Educ Community Health. 2017;3(3):1-8. doi: 10.21859/jech-03031.
  • 20. Ashrafi Asgarabad A, Khanjani N, Saber M, Jalili S, Khedmati E. [Knowledge and attitude of students at alzahra university about breast self-examination, Iran]. J Health Dev. 2012;1(2):112-20. Persian.
  • 21. Rastad H, Khanjani N, Khandani BK. Causes of delay in seeking treatment in patients with breast cancer in Iran: a qualitative content analysis study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(9):4511-5. doi: 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.9.4511. [PubMed: 23167370].
  • 22. Harirchi I, Ghaemmaghami F, Karbakhsh M, Moghimi R, Mazaherie H. Patient delay in women presenting with advanced breast cancer: an Iranian study. Public Health. 2005;119(10):885-91. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2004.11.005. [PubMed: 15913679].
  • 23. Neale AV, Tilley BC, Vernon SW. Marital status, delay in seeking treatment and survival from breast cancer. Soc Sci Med. 1986;23(3):305-12. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(86)90352-7. [PubMed: 3764489].
  • 24. Lannin DR, Mathews HF, Mitchell J, Swanson MS, Swanson FH, Edwards MS. Influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on racial differences in late-stage presentation of breast cancer. JAMA. 1998;279(22):1801-7. doi: 10.1001/jama.279.22.1801. [PubMed: 9628711].
  • 25. Thongsuksai P, Chongsuvivatwong V, Sriplung H. Delay in breast cancer care: a study in Thai women. Med Care. 2000;38(1):108-14. doi: 10.1097/00005650-200001000-00012. [PubMed: 10630725].
  • 26. Facione NC. Delay versus help seeking for breast cancer symptoms: a critical review of the literature on patient and provider delay. Soc Sci Med. 1993;36(12):1521-34. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(93)90340-A. [PubMed: 8327915].
  • 27. Ramirez AJ, Westcombe AM, Burgess CC, Sutton S, Littlejohns P, Richards MA. Factors predicting delayed presentation of symptomatic breast cancer: a systematic review. Lancet. 1999;353(9159):1127-31. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)02142-X. [PubMed: 10209975].
  • 28. Ebrahimi M, Vahdaninia M, Montazeri A. Risk factors for breast cancer in Iran: a case-control study. Breast Cancer Res. 2002;4(5):R10. doi: 10.1186/bcr454. [PubMed: 12223127]. [PubMed Central: PMC125302].
  • 29. Facione NC, Miaskowski C, Dodd MJ, Paul SM. The self-reported likelihood of patient delay in breast cancer: new thoughts for early detection. Prev Med. 2002;34(4):397-407. doi: 10.1006/pmed.2001.0998. [PubMed: 11914045].
  • 30. Montella M, Crispo A, D'Aiuto G, De Marco M, de Bellis G, Fabbrocini G, et al. Determinant factors for diagnostic delay in operable breast cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2001;10(1):53-9. doi: 10.1097/00008469-200102000-00006. [PubMed: 11263591].
  • 31. Arndt V, Sturmer T, Stegmaier C, Ziegler H, Dhom G, Brenner H. Socio-demographic factors, health behavior and late-stage diagnosis of breast cancer in Germany: a population-based study. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001;54(7):719-27. doi: 10.1016/S0895-4356(00)00351-6. [PubMed: 11438413].
  • 32. Grunfeld EA, Ramirez AJ, Hunter MS, Richards MA. Women's knowledge and beliefs regarding breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2002;86(9):1373-8. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6600260. [PubMed: 11986766]. [PubMed Central: PMC2375381].
  • 33. Sainsbury R, Johnston C, Haward B. Effect on survival of delays in referral of patients with breast-cancer symptoms: a retrospective analysis. Lancet. 1999;353(9159):1132-5. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)02374-0. [PubMed: 10209976].
  • 34. Harirchi I, Ebrahimi M, Zamani N, Jarvandi S, Montazeri A. Breast cancer in Iran: a review of 903 case records. Public Health. 2000;114(2):143-5. doi: 10.1038/sj.ph.1900623. [PubMed: 10800155].
  • 35. Grunfeld EA, Hunter MS, Ramirez AJ, Richards MA. Perceptions of breast cancer across the lifespan. J Psychosom Res. 2003;54(2):141-6. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00522-6. [PubMed: 12573735].
  • 36. de Nooijer J, Lechner L, de Vries H. Social psychological correlates of paying attention to cancer symptoms and seeking medical help. Soc Sci Med. 2003;56(5):915-20. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00098-9. [PubMed: 12593866].
  • 37. Kumari P, Goonewardena CSE. Delay among women reporting symptoms of Breast cancer. J College Community Physicians of Sri Lanka. 2011;16(1):17. doi: 10.4038/jccpsl.v16i1.3867.
  • 38. Manly-Lampkin S. Understanding Delay in Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Diverse Young Women. 30th Annual Oncology Nursing Society Congress. Orlando, Florida, USA. 2005.
  • 39. Meechan G, Collins J, Petrie KJ. The relationship of symptoms and psychological factors to delay in seeking medical care for breast symptoms. Prev Med. 2003;36(3):374-8. doi: 10.1016/S0091-7435(02)00053-1. [PubMed: 12634028].
  • 40. Burgess CC, Potts HW, Hamed H, Bish AM, Hunter MS, Richards MA, et al. Why do older women delay presentation with breast cancer symptoms? Psychooncology. 2006;15(11):962-8. doi: 10.1002/pon.1030. [PubMed: 16511900].
  • 41. Khanjani N, Noori A, Rostami F. The knowledge and practice of breast cancer screening among women in Kerman, Iran. Al-Ameen J Med Sci. 2012;5(2):221-6.
  • 42. Coates AS. Breast cancer: delays, dilemmas, and delusions. Lancet. 1999;353(9159):1112-3. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)00082-3. [PubMed: 10209969].
  • 43. Zola IK. Pathways to the doctor-from person to patient. Soc Sci Med. 1973;7(9):677-89. doi: 10.1016/0037-7856(73)90002-4. [PubMed: 4749058].
  • 44. Cameron L, Leventhal EA, Leventhal H. Seeking medical care in response to symptoms and life stress. Psychosom Med. 1995;57(1):37-47. doi: 10.1097/00006842-199501000-00006. [PubMed: 7732157].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments