International Journal of Cancer Management

Published by: Kowsar

XRCC1 and OGG1 Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literature

Ali Sanjari Moghaddam 1 , Milad Nazarzadeh 2 , Rezvan Noroozi 3 , Hossein Darvish 3 and Alireza Mosavi Jarrahi 1 , 2 , 4 , *
Authors Information
1 School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Iranian Research Center on Healthy Aging, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, IR Iran
3 Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
4 Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, BC., Canada
Article information
  • International Journal of Medical Education: February 28, 2016, 9 (1); e3467
  • Published Online: February 23, 2016
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: July 7, 2015
  • Revised: August 31, 2015
  • Accepted: November 9, 2015
  • DOI: 10.17795/ijcp-3467

To Cite: Sanjari Moghaddam A, Nazarzadeh M, Noroozi R, Darvish H, Mosavi Jarrahi A. XRCC1 and OGG1 Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literature, Int J Cancer Manag. 2016 ; 9(1):e3467. doi: 10.17795/ijcp-3467.

Abstract
Copyright © 2016, Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Objectives
3. Data Sources
4. Study Selection
5. Data Extraction
6. Results
7. Conclusions
Timeframe of Search
Acknowledgements
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014; 64(1): 9-29[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Sapkota Y. Germline DNA variations in breast cancer predisposition and prognosis: a systematic review of the literature. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2014; 144(2): 77-91[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Pharoah PD, Antoniou A, Bobrow M, Zimmern RL, Easton DF, Ponder BA. Polygenic susceptibility to breast cancer and implications for prevention. Nat Genet. 2002; 31(1): 33-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Walsh T, King MC. Ten genes for inherited breast cancer. Cancer Cell. 2007; 11(2): 103-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Pharoah PD, Dunning AM, Ponder BA, Easton DF. Association studies for finding cancer-susceptibility genetic variants. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004; 4(11): 850-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Lalloo F, Evans DG. Familial breast cancer. Clin Genet. 2012; 82(2): 105-14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Goode EL, Ulrich CM, Potter JD. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and associations with cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 2002; 11(12): 1513-30
  • 8. Zharkov DO. Base excision DNA repair. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008; 65(10): 1544-65[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Popanda O, Schattenberg T, Phong CT, Butkiewicz D, Risch A, Edler L, et al. Specific combinations of DNA repair gene variants and increased risk for non-small cell lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2004; 25(12): 2433-41[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Abdel-Rahman SZ, Soliman AS, Bondy ML, Omar S, El-Badawy SA, Khaled HM, et al. Inheritance of the 194Trp and the 399Gln variant alleles of the DNA repair gene XRCC1 are associated with increased risk of early-onset colorectal carcinoma in Egypt. Cancer Lett. 2000; 159(1): 79-86[PubMed]
  • 11. Li S, Peng Q, Chen Y, You J, Chen Z, Deng Y, et al. DNA repair gene XRCC1 polymorphisms, smoking, and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Xie H, Xia K, Rong H, Chen X. Genetic polymorphism in hOGG1 is associated with triple-negative breast cancer risk in Chinese Han women. Breast. 2013; 22(5): 707-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Hung RJ, Brennan P, Canzian F, Szeszenia-Dabrowska N, Zaridze D, Lissowska J, et al. Large-scale investigation of base excision repair genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in a multicenter study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97(8): 567-76[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Yuan W, Xu L, Feng Y, Yang Y, Chen W, Wang J, et al. The hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 122(3): 835-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Masson M, Niedergang C, Schreiber V, Muller S, Menissier-de Murcia J, de Murcia G. XRCC1 is specifically associated with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and negatively regulates its activity following DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol. 1998; 18(6): 3563-71[PubMed]
  • 16. Nash RA, Caldecott KW, Barnes DE, Lindahl T. XRCC1 protein interacts with one of two distinct forms of DNA ligase III. Biochemistry. 1997; 36(17): 5207-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Janssen K, Schlink K, Gotte W, Hippler B, Kaina B, Oesch F. DNA repair activity of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) in human lymphocytes is not dependent on genetic polymorphism Ser326/Cys326. Mutat Res. 2001; 486(3): 207-16[PubMed]
  • 18. Kohno T, Shinmura K, Tosaka M, Tani M, Kim SR, Sugimura H, et al. Genetic polymorphisms and alternative splicing of the hOGG1 gene, that is involved in the repair of 8-hydroxyguanine in damaged DNA. Oncogene. 1998; 16(25): 3219-25[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Hu Z, Ma H, Chen F, Wei Q, Shen H. XRCC1 polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 38 case-control studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005; 14(7): 1810-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Kiyohara C, Takayama K, Nakanishi Y. Association of genetic polymorphisms in the base excision repair pathway with lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Lung Cancer. 2006; 54(3): 267-83[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Silva SN, Moita R, Azevedo AP, Gouveia R, Manita I, Pina JE, et al. Menopausal age and XRCC1 gene polymorphisms: role in breast cancer risk. Cancer Detect Prev. 2007; 31(4): 303-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Smith TR, Miller MS, Lohman K, Lange EM, Case LD, Mohrenweiser HW, et al. Polymorphisms of XRCC1 and XRCC3 genes and susceptibility to breast cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003; 190(2): 183-90[PubMed]
  • 23. Thyagarajan B, Anderson KE, Folsom AR, Jacobs DJ, Lynch CF, Bargaje A, et al. No association between XRCC1 and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: Iowa Women's Health Study. Cancer Detect Prev. 2006; 30(4): 313-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Yin J, Wang C, Liang D, Vogel U, Yue L, Liu J, et al. No evidence of association between the synonymous polymorphisms in XRCC1 and ERCC2 and breast cancer susceptibility among nonsmoking Chinese. Gene. 2012; 503(1): 118-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Cai Q, Shu XO, Wen W, Courtney R, Dai Q, Gao YT, et al. Functional Ser326Cys polymorphism in the hOGG1 gene is not associated with breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15(2): 403-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Vogel U, Nexo BA, Olsen A, Thomsen B, Jacobsen NR, Wallin H, et al. No association between OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003; 12(2): 170-1[PubMed]
  • 27. Zhang Y, Newcomb PA, Egan KM, Titus-Ernstoff L, Chanock S, Welch R, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in base-excision repair pathway genes and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15(2): 353-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Chacko P, Rajan B, Joseph T, Mathew BS, Pillai MR. Polymorphisms in DNA repair gene XRCC1 and increased genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005; 89(1): 15-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Sangrajrang S, Schmezer P, Burkholder I, Waas P, Boffetta P, Brennan P, et al. Polymorphisms in three base excision repair genes and breast cancer risk in Thai women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008; 111(2): 279-88[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA. 2000; 283(15): 2008-12[PubMed]
  • 31. da Costa BR, Hilfiker R, Egger M. PEDro's bias: summary quality scores should not be used in meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol. 2013; 66(1): 75-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. da Costa BR, Juni P. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized trials: principles and pitfalls. Eur Heart J. 2014; 35(47): 3336-45[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Juni P, Witschi A, Bloch R, Egger M. The hazards of scoring the quality of clinical trials for meta-analysis. JAMA. 1999; 282(11): 1054-60[PubMed]
  • 34. Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, Heller RF, Zwahlen M. Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet. 2008; 371(9612): 569-78[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Romanowicz-Makowska H, Smolarz B, Kulig A. [Polymorphisms in XRCC1 and ERCC4/XPF DNA repair genes and associations with breast cancer risk in women]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2007; 22(129): 200-3[PubMed]
  • 36. Sterpone S, Cornetta T, Padua L, Mastellone V, Giammarino D, Testa A, et al. DNA repair capacity and acute radiotherapy adverse effects in Italian breast cancer patients. Mutat Res. 2010; 684(1-2): 43-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Sobczuk A, Romanowicz-Makowska H, Fiks T, Baszczynski J, Smolarz B. XRCC1 and XRCC3 DNA repair gene polymorphisms in breast cancer women from the Lodz region of Poland. Pol J Pathol. 2009; 60(2): 76-80[PubMed]
  • 38. Sterpone S, Mastellone V, Padua L, Novelli F, Patrono C, Cornetta T, et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in BER and HRR genes, XRCC1 haplotypes and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010; 136(4): 631-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Al Mutairi FM, Alanazi M, Shalaby M, Alabdulkarim HA, Pathan AA, Parine NR. Association of XRCC1 gene polymorphisms with breast cancer susceptibility in Saudi patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(6): 3809-13[PubMed]
  • 40. Ali MF, Meza JL, Rogan EG, Chakravarti D. Prevalence of BER gene polymorphisms in sporadic breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2008; 19(4): 1033-8[PubMed]
  • 41. Brewster AM, Jorgensen TJ, Ruczinski I, Huang HY, Hoffman S, Thuita L, et al. Polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes XPD (Lys751Gln) and XRCC1 (Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp): relationship to breast cancer risk and familial predisposition to breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006; 95(1): 73-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 42. Bu D, Tomlinson G, Lewis CM, Zhang C, Kildebeck E, Euhus DM. An intronic polymorphism associated with increased XRCC1 expression, reduced apoptosis and familial breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006; 99(3): 257-65[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Choi JY, Hamajima N, Tajima K, Yoo KY, Yoon KS, Park SK, et al. hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and breast cancer risk among Asian women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003; 79(1): 59-62[PubMed]
  • 44. Costa S, Pinto D, Pereira D, Rodrigues H, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Medeiros R, et al. DNA repair polymorphisms might contribute differentially on familial and sporadic breast cancer susceptibility: a study on a Portuguese population. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007; 103(2): 209-17[DOI][PubMed]
  • 45. Deligezer U, Dalay N. Association of the XRCC1 gene polymorphisms with cancer risk in Turkish breast cancer patients. Exp Mol Med. 2004; 36(6): 572-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Ding P, Yang Y, Cheng L, Zhang X, Cheng L, Li C, et al. The relationship between seven common polymorphisms from five DNA repair genes and the risk for breast cancer in northern Chinese women. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 47. Duell EJ, Millikan RC, Pittman GS, Winkel S, Lunn RM, Tse CK, et al. Polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene XRCC1 and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001; 10(3): 217-22[PubMed]
  • 48. Dufloth RM, Costa S, Schmitt F, Zeferino LC. DNA repair gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to familial breast cancer in a group of patients from Campinas, Brazil. Genet Mol Res. 2005; 4(4): 771-82[PubMed]
  • 49. Figueiredo JC, Knight JA, Briollais L, Andrulis IL, Ozcelik H. Polymorphisms XRCC1-R399Q and XRCC3-T241M and the risk of breast cancer at the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004; 13(4): 583-91[PubMed]
  • 50. Forsti A, Angelini S, Festa F, Sanyal S, Zhang Z, Grzybowska E, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2004; 11(4): 917-22[PubMed]
  • 51. Han J, Hankinson SE, De Vivo I, Spiegelman D, Tamimi RM, Mohrenweiser HW, et al. A prospective study of XRCC1 haplotypes and their interaction with plasma carotenoids on breast cancer risk. Cancer Res. 2003; 63(23): 8536-41[PubMed]
  • 52. Huang CS, Chen JJ, Yang SY, Cheng CW, Chern HD, Chang KJ, et al. Breast Cancer Risk Associated with Genotypic Polymorphism of Oxidative DNA Damage Repair Genes-A Multigenic Study of Base Excision Repair and Transcription-Coupled Repair in Cancer Susceptibility. J Genet Mole Biol. 2004; 15: 116-36
  • 53. Hussien YM, Gharib AF, Awad HA, Karam RA, Elsawy WH. Impact of DNA repair genes polymorphism (XPD and XRCC1) on the risk of breast cancer in Egyptian female patients. Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(2): 1895-901[DOI][PubMed]
  • 54. Jakubowska A, Gronwald J, Menkiszak J, Gorski B, Huzarski T, Byrski T, et al. BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks in Poland: no association with commonly studied polymorphisms. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 119(1): 201-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 55. Jelonek K, Gdowicz-Klosok A, Pietrowska M, Borkowska M, Korfanty J, Rzeszowska-Wolny J, et al. Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of selected genes involved in the response to DNA damage and risk of colon, head and neck, and breast cancers in a Polish population. J Appl Genet. 2010; 51(3): 343-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 56. Kim KY, Han W, Noh DY, Kang D, Kwack K. Impact of genetic polymorphisms in base excision repair genes on the risk of breast cancer in a Korean population. Gene. 2013; 532(2): 192-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 57. Kim SU, Park SK, Yoo KY, Yoon KS, Choi JY, Seo JS, et al. XRCC1 genetic polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Pharmacogenetics. 2002; 12(4): 335-8[PubMed]
  • 58. Kipikasova L, Wolaschka T, Bohus P, Baumohlova H, Bober J, Blazejova J, et al. Polymorphisms of the XRCC1 and XPD genes and breast cancer risk: a case-control study. Pathol Oncol Res. 2008; 14(2): 131-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 59. Liu L, Yuan P, Liu L, Wu C, Zhang X, Guo H, et al. A functional -77T>C polymorphism in XRCC1 is associated with risk of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 125(2): 479-87[DOI][PubMed]
  • 60. Loizidou MA, Michael T, Neuhausen SL, Newbold RF, Marcou Y, Kakouri E, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC2 and XRCC3 and risk of breast cancer in Cyprus. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008; 112(3): 575-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 61. Luo H, Li Z, Qing Y, Zhang SH, Peng Y, Li Q, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of DNA base-excision repair genes (APE1, OGG1 and XRCC1) associated with breast cancer risk in a Chinese population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(3): 1133-40[PubMed]
  • 62. Macias-Gomez NM, Peralta-Leal V, Meza-Espinoza JP, Gutierrez-Angulo M, Duran-Gonzalez J, Ramirez-Gonzalez JM, et al. Polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene and breast cancer risk in the Mexican population. Fam Cancer. 2015; 14(3): 349-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 63. McCullough LE, Santella RM, Cleveland RJ, Millikan RC, Olshan AF, North KE, et al. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, recreational physical activity and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(3): 654-63[DOI][PubMed]
  • 64. Metsola K, Kataja V, Sillanpaa P, Siivola P, Heikinheimo L, Eskelinen M, et al. XRCC1 and XPD genetic polymorphisms, smoking and breast cancer risk in a Finnish case-control study. Breast Cancer Res. 2005; 7(6)-97[DOI][PubMed]
  • 65. Ming-Shiean H, Yu JC, Wang HW, Chen ST, Hsiung CN, Ding SL, et al. Synergistic effects of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and endogenous estrogen exposure on female breast cancer risk. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010; 17(3): 760-71[PubMed]
  • 66. Mitra AK, Singh N, Singh A, Garg VK, Agarwal A, Sharma M, et al. Association of polymorphisms in base excision repair genes with the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in North Indian women. Oncol Res. 2008; 17(3): 127-35[PubMed]
  • 67. Moullan N, Cox DG, Angele S, Romestaing P, Gerard JP, Hall J. Polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene XRCC1, breast cancer risk, and response to radiotherapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003; 12(11 Pt 1): 1168-74[PubMed]
  • 68. Pachkowski BF, Winkel S, Kubota Y, Swenberg JA, Millikan RC, Nakamura J. XRCC1 genotype and breast cancer: functional studies and epidemiologic data show interactions between XRCC1 codon 280 His and smoking. Cancer Res. 2006; 66(5): 2860-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 69. Patel AV, Calle EE, Pavluck AL, Feigelson HS, Thun MJ, Rodriguez C. A prospective study of XRCC1 (X-ray cross-complementing group 1) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res. 2005; 7(6)-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 70. Przybylowska-Sygut K, Stanczyk M, Kusinska R, Kordek R, Majsterek I. Association of the Arg194Trp and the Arg399Gln polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene with risk occurrence and the response to adjuvant therapy among Polish women with breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2013; 13(1): 61-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 71. Ramadan RA, Desouky LM, Elnaggar MA, Moaaz M, Elsherif AM. Association of DNA repair genes XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), (Arg194Trp) and XRCC3 (Thr241Met) polymorphisms with the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Egypt. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2014; 18(11): 754-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 72. Roberts MR, Shields PG, Ambrosone CB, Nie J, Marian C, Krishnan SS, et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and association with breast cancer risk in the web study. Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(8): 1223-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 73. Rodrigues P, de Marco G, Furriol J, Mansego ML, Pineda-Alonso M, Gonzalez-Neira A, et al. Oxidative stress in susceptibility to breast cancer: study in Spanish population. BMC Cancer. 2014; 14: 861[DOI][PubMed]
  • 74. Romanowicz H, Smolarz B, Baszczynski J, Zadrozny M, Kulig A. Genetics polymorphism in DNA repair genes by base excision repair pathway (XRCC1) and homologous recombination (XRCC2 and RAD51) and the risk of breast carcinoma in the Polish population. Pol J Pathol. 2010; 61(4): 206-12[PubMed]
  • 75. Romanowicz-Makowska H, Smolarz B, Makowski M, Polac I, Pertynski T. Ser326Cys polymorphism in DNA repair genes hOGG1 in breast cancer women. Pol J Pathol. 2008; 59(4): 201-4[PubMed]
  • 76. Rossner PJ, Terry MB, Gammon MD, Zhang FF, Teitelbaum SL, Eng SM, et al. OGG1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15(4): 811-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 77. Saadat M, Kohan L, Omidvari S. Genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 (codon 399) and susceptibility to breast cancer in Iranian women, a case-control study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008; 111(3): 549-53[DOI][PubMed]
  • 78. Santos RA, Teixeira AC, Mayorano MB, Carrara HH, Andrade JM, Takahashi CS. DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC3 polymorphisms and their relationship with the level of micronuclei in breast cancer patients. Genet Mol Biol. 2010; 33(4): 637-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 79. Sapkota Y, Mackey JR, Lai R, Franco-Villalobos C, Lupichuk S, Robson PJ, et al. Assessing SNP-SNP interactions among DNA repair, modification and metabolism related pathway genes in breast cancer susceptibility. PLoS One. 2014; 8(6)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 80. Shadrina AS, Ermolenko NA, Boyarskikh UA, Sinkina TV, Lazarev AF, Petrova VD, et al. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk in Russian population: a case-control study. Clin Exp Med. 2014; [DOI][PubMed]
  • 81. Shen J, Gammon MD, Terry MB, Wang L, Wang Q, Zhang F, et al. Polymorphisms in XRCC1 modify the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts, cigarette smoking, dietary antioxidants, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005; 14(2): 336-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 82. Shu XO, Cai Q, Gao YT, Wen W, Jin F, Zheng W. A population-based case-control study of the Arg399Gln polymorphism in DNA repair gene XRCC1 and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003; 12(12): 1462-7[PubMed]
  • 83. Smith TR, Levine EA, Freimanis RI, Akman SA, Allen GO, Hoang KN, et al. Polygenic model of DNA repair genetic polymorphisms in human breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2008; 29(11): 2132-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 84. Smith TR, Levine EA, Perrier ND, Miller MS, Freimanis RI, Lohman K, et al. DNA-repair genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003; 12(11 Pt 1): 1200-4[PubMed]
  • 85. Smolarz B, Makowska M, Samulak D, Michalska MM, Mojs E, Wilczak M, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ERCC2, hOGG1, and XRCC1 DNA repair genes and the risk of triple-negative breast cancer in Polish women. Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4): 3495-502[DOI][PubMed]
  • 86. Syamala VS, Syamala V, Sreedharan H, Raveendran PB, Kuttan R, Ankathil R. Contribution of XPD (Lys751Gln) and XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) polymorphisms in familial and sporadic breast cancer predisposition and survival: an Indian report. Pathol Oncol Res. 2009; 15(3): 389-97[DOI][PubMed]
  • 87. Synowiec E, Stefanska J, Morawiec Z, Blasiak J, Wozniak K. Association between DNA damage, DNA repair genes variability and clinical characteristics in breast cancer patients. Mutat Res. 2008; 648(1-2): 65-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 88. Zhai X, Liu J, Hu Z, Wang S, Qing J, Wang X, et al. Polymorphisms of ADPRT Val762Ala and XRCC1 Arg399Glu and risk of breast cancer in Chinese women: a case control analysis. Oncol Rep. 2006; 15(1): 247-52[PubMed]
  • 89. Zipprich J, Terry MB, Brandt-Rauf P, Freyer GA, Liao Y, Agrawal M, et al. XRCC1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk from the New York Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry: A family-based case-control study. J Carcinog. 2010; 9: 4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 90. Sasco AJ, Lowenfels AB, Pasker-de Jong P. Review article: epidemiology of male breast cancer. A meta-analysis of published case-control studies and discussion of selected aetiological factors. Int J Cancer. 1993; 53(4): 538-49[PubMed]
  • 91. Okobia MN, Bunker CH. Molecular epidemiology of breast cancer: a review. Afr J Reprod Health. 2003; 7(3): 17-28[PubMed]
  • 92. Ledwon JK, Hennig EE, Maryan N, Goryca K, Nowakowska D, Niwinska A, et al. Common low-penetrance risk variants associated with breast cancer in Polish women. BMC Cancer. 2013; 13: 510[DOI][PubMed]
  • 93. Weber BL, Nathanson KL. Low penetrance genes associated with increased risk for breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2000; 36(10): 1193-9[PubMed]
  • 94. Apostolou P, Fostira F. Hereditary breast cancer: the era of new susceptibility genes. Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013: 747318[DOI][PubMed]
  • 95. Ueda M, Toji E, Nunobiki O, Izuma S, Okamoto Y, Torii K, et al. Germline polymorphism of cancer susceptibility genes in gynecologic cancer. Hum Cell. 2008; 21(4): 95-104[DOI][PubMed]
  • 96. Wang K. Testing for genetic association in the presence of population stratification in genome-wide association studies. Genet Epidemiol. 2009; 33(7): 637-45[DOI][PubMed]
  • 97. Lewis CM, Knight J. Introduction to genetic association studies. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2012; 2012(3): 297-306[DOI][PubMed]
  • 98. Tsao H, Florez JC. Introduction to genetic association studies. J Invest Dermatol. 2007; 127(10): 2283-7[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments