International Journal of Cancer Management

Published by: Kowsar

Development and Psychometrics of a ‘Spiritual Needs Assessment Scale of Patients with Cancer’: A mixed Exploratory Study

Khadijeh Hatamipour 1 , Maryam Rassouli 2 , * , Farideh Yaghmaie 3 , Kazem Zendedel 4 and Hamid Alavi Majd 5
Authors Information
1 Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Tonekabon, IR Iran
2 Associate Professor, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Nursing, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan, IR Iran
4 Associate Professor of Cancer Epidemiology, Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
5 Professor, Department of Biostatistics, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of Cancer Management: January 2018, 11 (1); e10083
  • Published Online: January 13, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: December 19, 2016
  • Accepted: January 7, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijcm.10083

To Cite: Hatamipour K, Rassouli M, Yaghmaie F, Zendedel K, Alavi Majd H. Development and Psychometrics of a ‘Spiritual Needs Assessment Scale of Patients with Cancer’: A mixed Exploratory Study, Int J Cancer Manag. 2018 ; 11(1):e10083. doi: 10.5812/ijcm.10083.

Copyright © 2018, Cancer Research Center (CRC), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Sajjadi M, Rassouli M, Abbaszadeh A, Alavi Majd H, Zendehdel K. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Mishels Uncertainty in illness scale in patients with cancer. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2014;18(1):52-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2013.09.006. [PubMed: 24183257].
  • 2. Ngoma T. World health organization cancer priorities in developing countries. Ann Oncol. 2006;17 Suppl 8:9-14. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdl982. [PubMed: 16801342].
  • 3. Cebeci F, Yangin HB, Tekeli A. Life experiences of women with breast cancer in south western Turkey, a qualitative study. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2012;16(4):406-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2011.09.003. [PubMed: 22000551].
  • 4. Hatamipour K, Rassouli M, Yaghmaie F, Zendedel K, Majd HA. Spiritual needs of cancer patients, a qualitative study. Indian J Palliat Care. 2015;21(1):61-7. doi: 10.4103/0973-1075.150190. [PubMed: 25709188].
  • 5. Missel M, Birkelund R. Living with incurable oesophageal cancer. A phenomenological hermeneutical interpretation of patient stories. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2011;15(4):296-301. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2010.10.006. [PubMed: 21111678].
  • 6. Como JM. Spiritual practice, a literature review related to spiritual health and health outcomes. Holist Nurs Pract. 2007;21(5):224-36. doi: 10.1097/01.HNP.0000287986.17344.02. [PubMed: 17728565].
  • 7. Baldacchino D, Draper P. Spiritual coping strategies: a review of the nursing research literature. J Adv Nurs. 2001;34(6):833-41. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01814.x. [PubMed: 11422554].
  • 8. Ross L. Spiritual care in nursing, an overview of the research to date. J Clin Nurs. 2006;15(7):852-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2006.01617.x. [PubMed: 16879378].
  • 9. McSherry W. Making sense of spirituality in nursing practice; an interactive approach. 1 ed. U.K, London: Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh; 2000.
  • 10. Bussing A, Koenig HG. Spiritual needs of patients with chronic diseases. Religions. 2010;1(1):18-27. doi: 10.3390/rel1010018.
  • 11. Heidarzadeh M, Rassouli M, Mohammadi Shahbolaghi F, Alavi Majd H, Aman MK, Mirzaee H. Posttraumatic growth and its dimensions in patients with cancer. Middle East J Cancer. 2014;5(1):23-9.
  • 12. Zamanzadeh V, Rassouli M, Abbaszadeh A, Nikanfar A, Alavi-Majd H, Ghahramanian A. Factors influencing communication between the patients with cancer and their nurses in oncology wards. Indian J Palliat Care. 2014;20(1):12-20. doi: 10.4103/0973-1075.125549. [PubMed: 24600177].
  • 13. Dossey BM, Keegan L, Guzzetta CE. Holistic nursing, a hand book for practice. 3 ed. Massachusset: Jones and Bartlett; 2003.
  • 14. Rossi DC. The relationship between mystical experience and spiritual well being in women who have had or have cancer, dissertation submitted to the faculty of halos university graduate seminary in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of theology. Faculty of Halos University: Faculty of Halos University; 2006.
  • 15. Lim JW, Yi J. The effects of religiosity, spirituality, and social support on quality of life: a comparison between Korean American and Korean breast and gynecologic cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2009;36(6):699-708. doi: 10.1188/09.ONF.699-708. [PubMed: 19887358].
  • 16. Smucker CJ. Nursing, healing and spirituality. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 1998;4(4):95-7. [PubMed: 9830930].
  • 17. McSherry W, Gretton M, Draper P, Watson R. The ethical basis of teaching spirituality and spiritual care: a survey of student nurses perceptions. Nurse Educ Today. 2008;28(8):1002-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2008.05.013. [PubMed: 18597898].
  • 18. Narayanasamy A, Clissett P, Parumal L, Thompson D, Annasamy S, Edge R. Responses to the spiritual needs of older people. J Adv Nurs. 2004;48(1):6-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03163.x. [PubMed: 15347405].
  • 19. Sandor MK, Sierpina VS, Vanderpool HV, Owen SV. Spirituality and clinical care, exploring developmental changes in nursing and medical students. Explore (NY). 2006;2(1):37-42. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2005.10.009. [PubMed: 16781607].
  • 20. Mahmoodishan G, Alhani F, Ahmadi F, Kazemnejad A. Iranian nurses perception of spirituality and spiritual care, a qualitative content analysis study. J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2010;3:6. [PubMed: 23908741].
  • 21. Bussing A, Balzat HJ, Heusser P. Spiritual needs of patients with chronic pain diseases and cancer validation of the spiritual needs questionnaire. Eur J Med Res. 2010;15(6):266-73. [PubMed: 20696636].
  • 22. Sharma RK, Astrow AB, Texeira K, Sulmasy DP. The spiritual needs assessment for patients, (SNAP): development and validation of a comprehensive instrument to assess unmet spiritual needs. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012;44(1):44-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.07.008. [PubMed: 22658473].
  • 23. Yong J, Kim J, Han SS, Puchalski CM. Development and validation of a scale assessing spiritual needs for Korean patients with cancer. J Palliat Care. 2008;24(4):240-6. [PubMed: 19227015].
  • 24. Galek K, Flannelly KJ, Vane A, Galek RM. Assessing a patients spiritual needs: a comprehensive instrument. Holist Nurs Pract. 2005;19(2):62-9. [PubMed: 15871588].
  • 25. Rassouli M, Sajjadi M. Palliative care in Iran, moving toward the development of palliative care for cancer. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2016;33(3):240-4. doi: 10.1177/1049909114561856. [PubMed: 25492970].
  • 26. Polit DF, Beck CT, Owen SV. Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Res Nurs Health. 2007;30(4):459-67. doi: 10.1002/nur.20199. [PubMed: 17654487].
  • 27. Munro BH. Statistical methods for health care research. 5 ed. Philadelphia: LWW; 2005.
  • 28. Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing research, generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. 9 ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Co; 2012.
  • 29. Hajizadeh E, Asghari M. Statistical methods and analyses in health and biosciences a research methodological approach, (Persian). Tehran: Jahade Daneshgahi Publications; 2011.
  • 30. Rassouli M, Sajjadi M. Palliative care in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In: Silbermann M, editor. Palliative care to the cancer patient, the middle east as a model for emerging countries. New York: Nova Scientific Publisher; 2014.
  • 31. Moghimian M, Salmani F. The study of correlation between spiritual well-being and hope in cancer patients referring to seyyedo shohada training-therapy center of Isfahan University of medical sciences, 2010, Isfahan, Iran. Qom Univ Med Sci J. 2012;6(3):40-5.
  • 32. Shojae Kazemi M, Momeni Javid M. The Relationship between quality of life and life expectancy in cancer patients after surgery. Iran J Breast Dis. 2009;2(3, 4):20-7.
  • 33. Hosseinian E, Soodani M, Mehrabi Honarmand M. Efficacy of group logotherapy on cancer patients life expectation. J Behav Sci. 2010;3(4):287-92.
  • 34. Mardani Hamule M, Shahraki Vahed A. Relationship between mental health and quality of life in cancer patients. J Shahid Sadoughi Univ Med Sci. 2010;18(2):111-7.
  • 35. Touhy TA. Nurturing hope and spirituality in the nursing home. Holist Nurs Pract. 2001;15(4):45-56. [PubMed: 12120495].
  • 36. Burns N, Grove SK. The practice of nursing research conduct, critique and utilization. 6 ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier; 2009.
  • 37. Rassouli M, Yaghmaie F, Alavi Majd H, Saeedolzakerin M. Development and psychometrics of institutionalized adolescents spiritual coping scale. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol. 2009;15(1):25-32.
  • 38. Flannelly KJ, Weaver AJ, Costa KG. A systematic review of religion and spirituality in three palliative care journals, 1990-1999. J Palliat Care. 2004;20(1):50-6. [PubMed: 15132077].
  • 39. Doswell WM. The role of spirituality in preventing early sexual behavior. Am J Health Stud. 2003;18(4):195-204.
  • 40. McClain CS, Rosenfeld B, Breitbart W. Effect of spiritual well being on end of life despair in terminally ill cancer patients. Lancet. 2003;361(9369):1603-7. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13310-7. [PubMed: 12747880].
  • 41. Sowell R, Moneyham L, Hennessy M, Guillory J, Demi A, Seals B. Spiritual activities as a resistance resource for women with human immunodeficiency virus. Nurs Res. 2000;49(2):73-82. [PubMed: 10768583].
  • 42. Wright M. Hospice care and models of spirituality. Eur J Palliat Care. 2004;11(2):75-8.
  • 43. Sulmasy DP. A biopsychosocial spiritual model for the care of patients at the end of life. Gerontologist. 2002;42 Spec No 3:24-33. [PubMed: 12415130].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments